How Royal Bournemouth Hospital management put patient and staff safety in jeopardy: A frontline nurse explains

6 February 2021

Hospital management pretended that they could look after Covid and non-Covid patients along with other elective patients, without adequate staff and resources. This has failed miserably, with severe consequences.

Russia ends COVID-19 restrictions in major cities

By Andrea Peters, 23 January 2021

Having witnessed a small drop-off in infections and hospitalizations, Moscow and Saint Petersburg are now ending the very restrictions that fueled these improvements.

Spain’s rich and powerful secretly monopolised COVID-19 vaccines

By Alejandro López and Alex Lantier, 23 January 2021

The ruling class orders workers and youth back to work and school, knowing thousands will get sick and die, knowing they can illegally obtain the vaccine for themselves.

Government statistics reveal vast scale of UK school teacher and staff COVID-19 infections

By Tania Kent, 23 January 2021

The statistics are a devastating indictment of the Conservative government’s policy of forcing schools to stay open, supported by the Labour Party and the trade unions.

Greater numbers dying as COVID-19 infections spread in UK workplaces

By Barry Mason, 23 January 2021

Data published by Public Health England covering January 4-10 showed a near 70 percent increase in reports of COVID-19 infections related to workplaces, with 175 clusters. These workplaces were other than schools, hospitals or care homes.

#ZeroCovid petition: The campaign for a European lockdown requires a socialist perspective

By Peter Schwarz, 23 January 2021

The large support for the #ZeroCovid petition is an expression of the growing opposition to official government policy that puts the profits of big business above saving human lives. A consistent struggle against the pandemic, however, requires a socialist programme and the building of independent action committees.

Strikes by UK energy workers continue as British Airways workers plan further walkout; French energy workers strike; South African metal workers and broadcast workers strike against redundancies

Workers Struggles: Europe, Middle East & Africa

22 January 2021

Thousands of UK energy workers continue strikes against hire-and-fire; French energy workers strike against privatisation; indefinite strike by metalworkers at South African company against redundancies

UK strikes challenge company cost-cutting and trade union collusion

By Thomas Scripps, 22 January 2021

A growing number of strikes in Britain point to the growing demands in the working class for living standards and working conditions to be defended.

UK records over 21,000 deaths and a million new COVID infections in first three weeks of 2021

By Robert Stevens, 22 January 2021

Boris Johnson’s government is having to adapt to a public mood strongly opposed to ending lockdown, with many demanding it is made more restrictive.

Ferdinand von Schirach’s Enemies: German public television puts police torture up for consideration

By Justus Leicht, 22 January 2021

The German public television network ARD began the new year with a controversial programme examining the value of police using torture to compel suspects to confess.

Landmark victory for Smart Motorways Kill campaign as coroner rules Jason Mercer and Alexandru Murgeanu were unlawfully killed

By Robert Stevens, 21 January 2021

The ruling is a devastating blow against Highway England’s campaign to defend “smart motorways.”

Weakened Italian government clings to power

By Peter Schwarz, 21 January 2021

Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte survived confidence votes in both chambers of the Italian parliament and now heads a minority government.

UK: Investment banker adviser to Tory government appointed BBC chair

By Paul Bond, 21 January 2021

Sharp’s appointment demonstrates that the BBC’s long and carefully constructed fiction of impartiality is now increasingly rejected by the ruling class, who want more open support for their anti-democratic and repressive measures, and less airing of dissent and criticism.

German federal and state governments reject consistent lockdown measures

By Marianne Arens, 21 January 2021

“Profits before lives” is the unspoken motto of the establishment parties at every level.

Dutch government falls as deaths mount in COVID-19 pandemic

By Alex Lantier and Parwini Zora, 20 January 2021

Prime Minister Mark Rutte’s government resigned as governments in Estonia and Italy fell in the wake of Trump’s fascist coup attempt in Washington on January 6.

Germany’s Christian Democrats choose new leader

By Johannes Stern, 20 January 2021

Laschet’s narrow victory over Merz, who enjoyed the support of the openly right-wing section of the party, which has close ties to the right-wing extremist Alternative for Germany, has nothing to do with a rejection of his views.

Record UK COVID-19 deaths as government plots ending “the last” lockdown

By Robert Stevens, 20 January 2021

This is being justified by citing a vaccination programme with only four million people having received the first dose of a required two doses. The population of the UK is over 66 million.

Lockerbie bombing: Megrahi's posthumous appeal rejected by Scottish judges

By Steve James, 20 January 2021

Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi is the only person to be convicted for the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, which killed 270 people

Corbyn seeks readmittance to Labour Party as antisemitism witch-hunt escalates

By Thomas Scripps, 20 January 2021

The sum total of Corbyn’s position—of the man built up by the pseudo-left for years as a socialist messiah—is “Please Sir Keir! Throw me a bone!”

Neo-Nazi arms networks spreading across Europe

By Anthony Torres, 20 January 2021

In the weeks before and since Donald Trump’s January 6 fascist coup attempt in Washington, neo-Nazi circles were trafficking large quantities of weapons in Europe.

Local reports of COVID-19 deaths in UK schools confirm concealed impact of pandemic

By Harvey Thompson, 19 January 2021

Prior to Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s January 4 lockdown announcement, the government had even threatened legal action against those schools intending to close due to high infection rates.

Surge in COVID-19 on UK’s Isle of Wight overwhelms health care infrastructure

By Paul Bond, 19 January 2021

Stephen Parker, medical director of the island’s National Health Service Trust, warned, “If the NHS is going to be overwhelmed, it is going to be in the next two to four weeks.”

What workers need to know about the Fiat Chrysler-PSA merger

By Marcus Day, 19 January 2021

The formation of the new transnational giant marks new milestones in both the global integration of production and the protracted decline of America’s industrial dominance, while heralding intensified attacks on workers’ jobs internationally.

Spanish hospitals on brink of collapse as COVID-19 cases explode

By Alice Summers, 18 January 2021

As COVID-19 infections reach new highs, medical professionals in Spain warn that hospitals will soon be overwhelmed by admissions to intensive care units.

Mute on Washington coup, UK ruling elite turns fire against China

By Julie Hyland, 18 January 2021

The British government has been at pains to downplay the January 6 coup attempt by outgoing US President Donald Trump, sections of the military intelligence complex and their fascist supporters.

After COVID-19 kills tram driver in Berlin, transit workers in Germany demand more security

By Andy Niklaus, 18 January 2021

Every day, the 15,000 employees of the Berlin transport association BVG and tens of thousands of passengers risk infection with the coronavirus.

Podemos obeys Spanish fascist Vox party’s demand for no shelter-at-home

By Alejandro López, 18 January 2021

The Socialist Party (PSOE)-Podemos government immediately accepted Vox leader Santiago Abascal’s demand that no shelter-at-home be adopted against COVID-19.

Tens of thousands of UK National Health Service workers fall ill with COVID-19

By Rory Woods, 16 January 2021

Nearly 50,000 health care workers have contracted the virus and thousands more are isolating or shielding.

British government rejected visa-free EU touring for musicians to bolster hostile immigration policy

By Paul Bond, 16 January 2021

Musicians and promoters made it clear that the devastating impact of this move will not only be felt by current performers, but also be an obstacle to emerging performers in the future.

French government rejects lockdown as COVID-19 deaths sweep Europe

By Alex Lantier, 16 January 2021

The official policy of imposing a 6 p.m. curfew while keeping schools and nonessential production open ensures that hundreds of thousands will keep dying across Europe.

Network Meeting of the Action Committees for Safe Education: Pupils, workers and students discuss perspectives for a European-wide general strike

By Our reporters, 16 January 2021

In introducing the meeting, Gregor Link of the International Youth and Students for Social Equality referred to the now almost 400,000 confirmed COVID deaths in the European Union.

Renzi’s resignation threatens to bring down the Italian government

By Alex Lantier, 15 January 2021

The Italian government faces collapse amid mounting social anger at “herd immunity” policies and political uncertainty after the January 6 fascist coup in Washington.

Germany records highest daily coronavirus death toll as fatalities double in just one month

By Marianne Arens, 15 January 2021

While the federal and state governments claim that a tougher lockdown came into force on January 11, all of industry, offices, most schools, childcare facilities and public transport are operating as usual.

Fascist coup in Washington accelerates Spanish army’s coup plotting

By Alejandro López, 15 January 2021

Spain’s conservative Popular Party, the main parliamentary opposition to the Socialist Party (PSOE)-Podemos government, is debating whether to endorse the campaign waged by army officers and the fascist Vox party for a coup d’état.

How Germany’s Left Party promotes herd immunity

By Peter Schwarz, 15 January 2021

As was the case with the federal government in Berlin and every other state government in the pandemic, profits took precedence over human lives for the Left Party’s only state premier, Bodo Ramelow in Thuringia.

UK passes 100,000 COVID-19 deaths

By Robert Stevens, 15 January 2021

The staggering loss of life was underscored, Wednesday with the Office for National Statistics confirming that 2020 saw the largest increase in excess deaths since the Second World War

Swedish care workers’ national action; UK energy workers plan further industrial action as telecom workers in strike ballot; Nigerian polytechnic staff pay walk out

Workers Struggles: Europe, Middle East & Africa

15 January 2021

Around 55,000 Swedish care workers to begin industrial action today over pay, conditions and increased workload during pandemic; British gas workers plan further strikes to defend pay and conditions as Telecom workers in strike ballot.

Britain’s Socialist Workers Party and Counterfire apply political chloroform over Trump’s coup

By Chris Marsden, 14 January 2021

Callinicos and the Socialist Workers Party have spent months minimising the threat from Trump, despite mounting evidence that he was planning a coup.

Poorest UK schoolchildren sent meagre pandemic food parcels, as contractors reap massive profits

By Robert Stevens, 14 January 2021

Many expressed disgust and denounced the profiteering from poverty during the school closures necessitated by the pandemic

Over 600,000 dead from coronavirus in Europe

By Will Morrow, 14 January 2021

Scientists are warning that the pandemic is entering into an even more catastrophic stage than anything that has preceded it.

Irish health system on brink of collapse as COVID-19 figures surge

By Dermot Quinn, 14 January 2021

Ireland's health services are being rapidly overwhelmed by escalating rates of coronavirus infection.

After Trump’s coup attempt: German politicians call for massive military build-up

By Johannes Stern, 14 January 2021

While the ruling class in Germany reacts with a mixture of shock, nervousness and aggression to the fascist coup attempt in the US, all the establishment parties are intensifying their great power offensive.

London Mayor declares “major incident” as UK capital devastated by COVID-19

By Thomas Scripps, 13 January 2021

The Office for National Statistics estimates that one in 30 people are infected with the virus in London, up to one in 20 in the worst-hit areas.

UK Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee warns of packed schools amid an escalating pandemic and third lockdown

By Our reporter, 13 January 2021

The first Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee meeting of this year met after Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced a third lockdown, after being faced with the threat of mass walkouts and boycotts by educators and parents that could spread to other sections of workers.

Berlin, Germany transport worker dies of COVID-19

By Andy Niklaus, 13 January 2021

The Berlin Transport Company’s pandemic policy, which endangers the lives and health of workers, is supported by the Berlin Senate consisting of the SPD, the Greens and the Left Party.

German hospital group terminates nurse after criticism of situation in ICUs

By Markus Salzmann, 13 January 2021

As new infections reach record levels in Germany, the number of people requiring hospitalization for COVID-19 is growing.

Spain’s Morenoite CRT denies Trump’s fascist coup in Washington

By Alejandro López, 13 January 2021

The Workers Revolutionary Current’s complacent response to the coup attempt in America is directly linked to their silence on generals’ calls for a fascist coup in Spain.

Massive protest in Berlin against plans to reopen schools

By Markus Salzmann, 12 January 2021

Despite widespread opposition and clear scientific evidence that schools are a major driver of the pandemic, the Berlin state legislature of the Social Democrats, Greens and Left Party is sticking to the herd immunity policy in the interests of big business.

New COVID-19 variant fuels surge in UK and Ireland

By Robert Stevens, 12 January 2021

Deaths from COVID-19 as measured by the government have passed the grim milestone of 80,000, but the true number of deaths in Britain from the disease is almost 100,000.

UK government accelerates “hostile environment” against immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers

By Simon Whelan, 12 January 2021

£2.3 million was spent on forcibly removing 225 people to European countries in July, August and September this year—double the amount spent on deportation flights in the previous quarter

UK government figures hide £800 billion hoarded by super-rich

By Margot Miller, 11 January 2021

The wealthiest one percent owns 23 percent, almost one quarter of the country’s aggregate wealth, rather than 18 percent stated by the government.

France’s New Anti-capitalist Party denies Trump’s fascist coup in Washington

By Alex Lantier, 11 January 2021

After the storming of the Capitol by a far-right mob, the middle class NPA denied that a coup was attempted and denounced warnings about a coup as “bourgeois.”

German schools and day-care centres to reopen despite record death rates and new infections

By Gregor Link, 11 January 2021

Despite schools being the central driver of the pandemic, the education ministers in Germany’s federal states have decided on a “resumption of face-to-face teaching” as soon as possible.

Spain passes two million coronavirus cases as infection rates surge

By Alice Summers, 11 January 2021

After a lull in new daily infections and deaths, the holidays saw a renewed surge of COVID-19 in Spain, with cases returning to levels last seen in late October.

As UK death toll mounts, Corbyn and teaching unions suppress opposition to Johnson government’s murderous policies

By Julie Hyland, 9 January 2021

National Education Union joint leader Courtney pleaded that his union had done everything to keep schools open. “My union supported the opening of schools in September”, he said.

Amid fascist coup in Washington, Spanish officers intensify far-right plotting

By Alejandro López, 9 January 2021

As Trump attempted a coup in Washington, Spanish officers wrote to Defence Minister Margarita Robles, demanding she “change the course” of the elected government.

EU responsible for refugee disaster in Bosnia: People without food, in sandals in the snow

By Jan Ritter and Max Linhof, 9 January 2021

Without food, wearing just sandals in the snow and lacking a roof over their heads, more than 3,000 migrants must brave sub-zero temperatures in the northwest of Bosnia-Herzegovina.

British Gas workers begin five-day strike

By Robert Stevens, 9 January 2021

Gas workers face a terrible decline in living standards if these conditions are imposed throughout British Gas. They are not just fighting the company but face staunch opponents in the union bureaucracy.

Germany leads Europe in daily coronavirus deaths

By Peter Schwarz, 9 January 2021

Germany currently has the highest number of daily coronavirus deaths in Europe.

5,000 deaths and 400,000 COVID infections in UK in first week of 2021

By Robert Stevens, 8 January 2021

Scientists advising the government warned this week that the death toll will reach 100,000 before the end of the month.

9,000 British gas employees strike; UK student rent strikes spreading; Kenyan healthcare stoppage continues despite union sabotage

Workers Struggles: Europe, Middle East & Africa

8 January 2021

Employees at British Gas walk out to defend pay and conditions; UK University students rent strike across 31 universities; Kenyan healthcare workers’ strike continues despite union sending doctors back

Vaccine distribution mired in delays across Europe

By Will Morrow, 8 January 2021

As the coronavirus pandemic continues to spread out of control throughout the European continent, the program of vaccination organized by the European Union is already widely recognized to be a debacle.

COVID-19 infections out of control at Cricklewood Bus Garage! For a walkout to save lives!

Emergency statement by the London Bus Rank-and-File Committee, 8 January 2021

At least 12 staff have been diagnosed with COVID in recent days, including up to ten bus drivers, a manager and the garage’s full time Unite Health and Safety Rep

European politicians and media downplay coup in the United States

By Peter Schwarz, 8 January 2021

The central concern within ruling circles is that the advanced decomposition of American democracy could strengthen opposition to similar developments in Europe.

New year begins with record COVID-19 deaths in Germany

By Martin Nowak, 7 January 2021

The beginning of the year in Germany was characterised by overcrowded crematoria, hospitals on the brink of collapse and mass death.

Assange denied bail after extradition blocked, will appeal to UK High Court

By Thomas Scripps, 7 January 2021

Judge Baraitser said in her decision Wednesday, “As far as Mr Assange is concerned, this case has not yet been won.”

UK government refuses to publish list of airstrikes in Yemen involving civilian casualties

By Jean Shaoul, 7 January 2021

While the UK’s Ministry of Defence has listed a staggering 516 potential International Humanitarian Law violations by the coalition of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, the real number is far higher.

German teachers’ union backs in-person learning as COVID-19 deaths soar

By Martin Nowak and Christoph Vandreier, 7 January 2021

In enforcing their inhumane pandemic policies, the federal and state governments, consisting of a broad range of political coalitions, can rely on the close cooperation of Germany’s trade unions.

Hundreds of thousands in UK spend Christmas and New Year homeless as pandemic worsens

By Barry Mason, 7 January 2021

A third lockdown is now underway and the Conservative government has committed no more funding to deal with the homeless crisis and consigned its Everyone In scheme to the scrapheap.

Macron government advisor meets with neofascist Marion Marechal Le Pen

By Jacques Valentin, 6 January 2021

The French daily Le Monde revealed that Bruno Roger-Petit, an advisor to President Emmanuel Macron, met for lunch with Marion Maréchal on October 14.

COVID-19 deaths surge amid record new cases as Britain enters lockdown

By Robert Stevens, 6 January 2021

At a Downing Street press conference, Prime Minister Boris Johnson was forced to acknowledge that more than 1.1 million people now had the virus in England.

Germany’s federal and state governments keep workplaces open despite surging COVID deaths

By Marianne Arens, 6 January 2021

Government officials are ignoring the recommendations of scientists and risking an intensification of the pandemic.

Medical doctors respond to Assange extradition ruling: “He must be released without delay”

By our reporters, 6 January 2021

“We demand that all legal proceedings be dropped and that he be released from prison, and only then will his psychological torture finally end.”

My Little Sister: Two siblings clinging together

By Bernd Reinhardt, 5 January 2021

Can love between siblings survive when a brother falls ill and needs care, while his sister enjoys life as one of society’s affluent? This is the question posed by the Swiss film My Little Sister.

UK in third national lockdown as coronavirus surges out of control

By Robert Stevens, 5 January 2021

The lockdown is not as stringent as that imposed last March, with Prime Minister Boris Johnson insisting that people should go to work if they cannot work at home to keep profits rolling in for the major corporations.

“Every journalist should be concerned about what was said today in court. Because the political arguments provided by the United States were upheld by the British judicial system”

By Our reporters, 5 January 2021

Assange’s closest associates hailed the court’s decision as a victory but warned that the fight to secure his freedom was far from over.

“We have fewer rights than animals”: The unbearable life in the Greek refugee camp Kara Tepe

By Katerina Selin, 5 January 2021

Anyone wanting to gauge the criminal character of European governments and the European Union (EU) must look to Kara Tepe, the temporary camp on the Greek island of Lesbos.

EU–US tensions mount after EU signs trade deal with China

By Alex Lantier, 5 January 2021

Officials of the incoming Biden administration and their European allies denounced the EU–China deal, which they tried to halt before it was signed on December 30.

UK judge rules against US extradition: Release Julian Assange now!

By Thomas Scripps, 4 January 2021

A political decision has been reached that upholds the threat to democratic rights represented by the prosecution’s case, leaves Assange in danger of continued persecution, and demands the intensification of the campaign to secure his freedom.

With 4,500 deaths in just eight days and nearly 400,000 new Covid cases

UK teaching unions call for no work in “unsafe schools” as opposition among educators mounts

By Robert Stevens, 4 January 2021

Schools have been a major vector for the spread of COVID-19, worsened by a new and more contagious variant of the disease.

Macron government refuses calls to cancel school reopenings as pandemic surges

By Will Morrow, 4 January 2021

The Macron government has refused calls by medical specialists and teacher and parent groups for the cancellation or postponement of in-person classes.

Strikes spread across Spain as anger mounts at COVID-19 herd immunity policy

By Alejandro López, 4 January 2021

Workers’ struggles erupted in Spain in December, anticipating an intensification of the class struggle across Europe as a winter of death opens in the new year.

German cultural institutions oppose government’s anti–BDS resolution aimed at quashing criticism of Israel

By Sybille Fuchs, 4 January 2021

On December 9, 30 German cultural institutions issued a statement opposing a resolution passed by the Bundestag seeking to silence the BDS movement.

Opening of schools in Germany based on deliberate lies and deception

By Gregor Link, 4 January 2021

The criminality with which the campaign to open schools has been conducted was recently demonstrated by the deliberate suppression of a study from Hamburg showing massive outbreaks were taking place within schools in Germany.

Daily deaths near 1,000 as UK Parliament spends day ratifying Brexit treaty

By Robert Stevens, 31 December 2020

In a world far removed from this death and suffering, the parties of the ruling class were engaged in a day long ratification of the Brexit treaty agreed by Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s Conservative government with the European Union.

Spanish officers plot fascist coup to impose “herd immunity” COVID-19 policy

By Alejandro López and Alex Lantier, 31 December 2020

The “left populist” Podemos party and its ruling social-democratic allies are hushing up active plotting for a coup that has taken place throughout virtually the entire year.

Freedom of Information request reveals surge of COVID-19 infections among London bus, rail and tube workers

By Laura Tiernan, 31 December 2020

Transport for London’s response has revealed the extent of COVID-19 exposure across the capital’s transport network.

Assange extradition decision due January 4: Mobilise the working class to secure his freedom!

By Thomas Scripps, 31 December 2020

Building the necessary campaign in the working class requires a political reckoning with the forces that have worked to isolate Assange—the media and civil rights organisations of the petty-bourgeois “liberal” fraternity, the pseudo-left and the trade union and Labour bureaucracy.

Spain to cut pensions as billions go to super-rich in EU pandemic bailout

By Alice Summers, 31 December 2020

While handing out €140 billion in COVID-19 bailouts to the banks, the “left populist” Podemos party is moving to slash workers’ pensions.

As scientific council warns of “uncontrolled resurgence of epidemic”

Macron government rejects national lock-down in France

By Samuel Tissot, 31 December 2020

Ignoring the recommendations of scientists, the government has determined to reopen schools and workplaces in the New Year

Coronavirus deaths reach record high in Germany as hospitals teeter on brink of collapse

By Marianne Arens, 31 December 2020

Nurses in Hamburg went public to speak about working conditions shortly before Christmas.

Emergency meeting of the Network of Action Committees for Safe Education

German high school student: “If we don’t close the schools, no one will!”

German high school student: “If we don’t close the schools, no one will!”

By Gregor Link, 30 December 2020

Faced with death tolls unseen in Europe since World War II, the Network of Action Committees for Safe Education in Germany convened an emergency meeting on Tuesday to advance the fight for school closures and discuss prospects for a general strike against the politics of mass infection with the coronavirus.

French testing system missed 9 of 10 COVID-19 cases after first lock-down

By Samuel Tissot, 30 December 2020

A recent study exposes the inadequacy of the testing system the Macron government introduced after the first lock-down, leading to thousands of preventable deaths.

Catastrophe worsens as UK records nearly 100,000 new COVID-19 cases in 48 hours

By Robert Stevens, 30 December 2020

Hospitals are being overwhelmed with a number having to declare emergencies. Moreover, the surge in infections threatens to overwhelm a vaccine rollout taking place at a snail’s pace.

Fascists enter parliament as COVID-19 devastates Romania

By Andrei Tudora and Tina Zamfir, 30 December 2020

The ex-Stalinist Social-Democratic Party has provided material and political support for the rise of fascism while supporting the government’s “herd immunity” policy.

Active-duty Spanish officers hail retired officers’ fascist calls for mass murder

By Alejandro López, 29 December 2020

Despite the PSOE-Podemos government’s denials, calls by retired officers for a fascist coup and mass murder of left-wing voters have broad support among serving officers.

A deadly Christmas in Germany

By Johannes Stern, 29 December 2020

The crocodile tears shed by Steinmeier in his Christmas address cannot disguise the fact the ruling class is responsible for the greatest mass deaths since the end of World War II.

Sweden records deadliest November since 1918 Spanish flu pandemic

By Jordan Shilton, 29 December 2020

Around 100 people are dying on a daily basis, the equivalent of over 3,000 in the US population.

Open letter from London Bus Drivers Rank-and-File Safety Committee

Workers demand answers over COVID-19 infections at Cricklewood garage

Miles Driver, 29 December 2020

Despite the preventable deaths of 35 London bus workers, a new wave of infections has struck, with information about garage outbreaks deliberately concealed in the interests of “operational efficiency”, i.e., profits.

Brexit deal paves way for further conflicts

By Robert Stevens, 29 December 2020

Ultimately, the deal does nothing other than set the short-term parameters for the ongoing conflict between the UK and the European Union.